SYMPTOMS & RESEARCH

Symptoms of kidney, bladder and urinary tract disorders:

  • Fever is a general symptom, in general not with bladder infections, but in a bacterial renal pelvic infection. Even renal cancer can cause fever.
  • Urinating more often but small amounts, usually points towards a bladder infection, bladder crystals, bladder stones or a tumor.
  • Urinating large amounts usually points towards a renal disease or diabetes.
  • Red urine could be caused by blood in the urine or colorants in the food.
  • Brown, black, blue, green urine can be caused by medication.
  • Brown urine can also point towards a presence of decayed haemoglobin (the protein that transports oxygen in the blood) or proteins.
  • Cloudy urine can be caused by pus of a bacterial infection or crystals.
  • Pain in the lower part of the back and loins, that radiates towards the centre of the belly, usually points towards a kidney disease.
  • Severe pain is usually caused by a kidney stone or a severe infection.
  • High fever, shock and severe pain can result in renal failure.

Urine sample dog or cat

A vet can examine urine on regular basis with a dipstick and a microscope. A dipstick is a plastic stick that is dipped in urine. It will colour and these colours show the amount of protein, glucose, substances pointing to the break down of fat in the urine and nitrates in urine.

  • The presence of protein can point towards a renal disorder
  • The presence of glucose points mostly to diabetes (diabetes mellitus). If glucose remains present in urine after excluding diabetes as a cause, a renal disorder is most likely.
  • The presence of substances that indicate the break down of fat (ketones) usually points to starvation or not well regulated diabetes.
  • The presence of nitrates point towards bacterial infection.
  • The microscope is used to do a blood count of red and white blood cells and the presence of crystals.

Blood test

A blood test is usually done to judge renal function. The levels of creatinine and ureum express the ability of excreting superfluous and undesired substances from the blood. Creatine is formed in the muscles and transported in the blood. A small part is converted into creatinine which is secreted by the kidneys. Ureum is an amino acid waste product and is also transported in the blood. Kidneys that function properly filter creatinine and ureum out of the blood. A high level of creatinine and ureum states that the filter function of the kidneys is not working well anymore

It has to be said that one must be careful with the level of creatinine and ureum found in blood. Kidneys have a substantial overcapacity. Kidneys are already substantially affected, before high levels of creatinine and ureum show up in blood tests. If high levels are present in the blood, only half of the renal function is intact, or less. Other influential factors on these blood tests are age, weight and gender of the animal.